Onewire Driver

Last updated 3 months ago

This tutorial explains how to connect and read data from a DS18x20 temperature sensor. The onewire library is also available at the pycom-libraries GitHub Repository.

Basic usage

import time
from machine import Pin
from onewire import DS18X20
from onewire import OneWire
# DS18B20 data line connected to pin P10
ow = OneWire(Pin('P10'))
temp = DS18X20(ow)
while True:
print(temp.read_temp_async())
time.sleep(1)
temp.start_conversion()
time.sleep(1)

Library

#!/usr/bin/env python3
"""
OneWire library for MicroPython
"""
import time
import machine
class OneWire:
CMD_SEARCHROM = const(0xf0)
CMD_READROM = const(0x33)
CMD_MATCHROM = const(0x55)
CMD_SKIPROM = const(0xcc)
def __init__(self, pin):
self.pin = pin
self.pin.init(pin.OPEN_DRAIN, pin.PULL_UP)
def reset(self):
"""
Perform the onewire reset function.
Returns True if a device asserted a presence pulse, False otherwise.
"""
sleep_us = time.sleep_us
disable_irq = machine.disable_irq
enable_irq = machine.enable_irq
pin = self.pin
pin(0)
sleep_us(480)
i = disable_irq()
pin(1)
sleep_us(60)
status = not pin()
enable_irq(i)
sleep_us(420)
return status
def read_bit(self):
sleep_us = time.sleep_us
enable_irq = machine.enable_irq
pin = self.pin
pin(1) # half of the devices don't match CRC without this line
i = machine.disable_irq()
pin(0)
sleep_us(1)
pin(1)
sleep_us(1)
value = pin()
enable_irq(i)
sleep_us(40)
return value
def read_byte(self):
value = 0
for i in range(8):
value |= self.read_bit() << i
return value
def read_bytes(self, count):
buf = bytearray(count)
for i in range(count):
buf[i] = self.read_byte()
return buf
def write_bit(self, value):
sleep_us = time.sleep_us
pin = self.pin
i = machine.disable_irq()
pin(0)
sleep_us(1)
pin(value)
sleep_us(60)
pin(1)
sleep_us(1)
machine.enable_irq(i)
def write_byte(self, value):
for i in range(8):
self.write_bit(value & 1)
value >>= 1
def write_bytes(self, buf):
for b in buf:
self.write_byte(b)
def select_rom(self, rom):
"""
Select a specific device to talk to. Pass in rom as a bytearray (8 bytes).
"""
self.reset()
self.write_byte(CMD_MATCHROM)
self.write_bytes(rom)
def crc8(self, data):
"""
Compute CRC
"""
crc = 0
for i in range(len(data)):
byte = data[i]
for b in range(8):
fb_bit = (crc ^ byte) & 0x01
if fb_bit == 0x01:
crc = crc ^ 0x18
crc = (crc >> 1) & 0x7f
if fb_bit == 0x01:
crc = crc | 0x80
byte = byte >> 1
return crc
def scan(self):
"""
Return a list of ROMs for all attached devices.
Each ROM is returned as a bytes object of 8 bytes.
"""
devices = []
diff = 65
rom = False
for i in range(0xff):
rom, diff = self._search_rom(rom, diff)
if rom:
devices += [rom]
if diff == 0:
break
return devices
def _search_rom(self, l_rom, diff):
if not self.reset():
return None, 0
self.write_byte(CMD_SEARCHROM)
if not l_rom:
l_rom = bytearray(8)
rom = bytearray(8)
next_diff = 0
i = 64
for byte in range(8):
r_b = 0
for bit in range(8):
b = self.read_bit()
if self.read_bit():
if b: # there are no devices or there is an error on the bus
return None, 0
else:
if not b: # collision, two devices with different bit meaning
if diff > i or ((l_rom[byte] & (1 << bit)) and diff != i):
b = 1
next_diff = i
self.write_bit(b)
if b:
r_b |= 1 << bit
i -= 1
rom[byte] = r_b
return rom, next_diff
class DS18X20(object):
def __init__(self, onewire):
self.ow = onewire
self.roms = [rom for rom in self.ow.scan() if rom[0] == 0x10 or rom[0] == 0x28]
def isbusy(self):
"""
Checks wether one of the DS18x20 devices on the bus is busy
performing a temperature conversion
"""
return not self.ow.read_bit()
def start_conversion(self, rom=None):
"""
Start the temp conversion on one DS18x20 device.
Pass the 8-byte bytes object with the ROM of the specific device you want to read.
If only one DS18x20 device is attached to the bus you may omit the rom parameter.
"""
rom = rom or self.roms[0]
ow = self.ow
ow.reset()
ow.select_rom(rom)
ow.write_byte(0x44) # Convert Temp
def read_temp_async(self, rom=None):
"""
Read the temperature of one DS18x20 device if the conversion is complete,
otherwise return None.
"""
if self.isbusy():
return None
rom = rom or self.roms[0]
ow = self.ow
ow.reset()
ow.select_rom(rom)
ow.write_byte(0xbe) # Read scratch
data = ow.read_bytes(9)
return self.convert_temp(rom[0], data)
def convert_temp(self, rom0, data):
"""
Convert the raw temperature data into degrees celsius and return as a fixed point with 2 decimal places.
"""
temp_lsb = data[0]
temp_msb = data[1]
if rom0 == 0x10:
if temp_msb != 0:
# convert negative number
temp_read = temp_lsb >> 1 | 0x80 # truncate bit 0 by shifting, fill high bit with 1.
temp_read = -((~temp_read + 1) & 0xff) # now convert from two's complement
else:
temp_read = temp_lsb >> 1 # truncate bit 0 by shifting
count_remain = data[6]
count_per_c = data[7]
temp = 100 * temp_read - 25 + (count_per_c - count_remain) // count_per_c
return temp
elif rom0 == 0x28:
return (temp_msb << 8 | temp_lsb) * 100 // 16
else:
assert False