OTAA stands for Over The Air Authentication. With this method the LoPy sends a Join request to the LoRaWAN Gateway using the APPEUI and APPKEY provided. If the keys are correct the Gateway will reply to the LoPy with a join accept message and from that point on the LoPy is able to send a receive packets to the Gateway. If the keys are incorrect no response will be received and the has_joined() method will always return False.

The example below attempts to get any data received after sending the frame. Keep in mind that the Gateway might not be sending any data back, therefore we make the socket non-blocking before attempting to receive, in order to prevent getting stuck waiting for a packet that will never arrive.

from network import LoRa
import socket
import time
import binascii

# Initialize LoRa in LORAWAN mode.
lora = LoRa(mode=LoRa.LORAWAN)

# create an OTAA authentication parameters
app_eui = binascii.unhexlify('AD A4 DA E3 AC 12 67 6B'.replace(' ',''))
app_key = binascii.unhexlify('11 B0 28 2A 18 9B 75 B0 B4 D2 D8 C7 FA 38 54 8B'.replace(' ',''))

# join a network using OTAA (Over the Air Activation)
lora.join(activation=LoRa.OTAA, auth=(app_eui, app_key), timeout=0)

# wait until the module has joined the network
while not lora.has_joined():
    print('Not yet joined...')

# create a LoRa socket
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_LORA, socket.SOCK_RAW)

# set the LoRaWAN data rate
s.setsockopt(socket.SOL_LORA, socket.SO_DR, 5)

# make the socket blocking
# (waits for the data to be sent and for the 2 receive windows to expire)

# send some data
s.send(bytes([0x01, 0x02, 0x03]))

# make the socket non-blocking
# (because if there's no data received it will block forever...)

# get any data received (if any...)
data = s.recv(64)

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